ASTM A193 Grade B16 stud bolts are high strength fasteners manufactured from heat treated Chromium-Molybdenum-Vanadium steel, quenched and tempered. Added Vanadium allows for operating temperatures higher than that of B7 stud bolts. Dimensional specifications are governed by ASME B18.31.2. Grade markings consists of both the grade symbol "B16" and the manufacturer's identification mark on one end of each stud 3/8" diameter and larger. Manufacturer's marking may be placed on other end if insufficient space. Inch series fasteners meeting ASTM A193 Grade B16 specifications are typically used in the power and petrochemical industries on boilers, turbines, and other pressurized equipment with elevated temperatures. ASTM A193 covers the requirements for high temperature and high pressure bolting. A193 B16 all thread studs having diameters above 1" are most common in 8UN thread pitches.